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2002年南中國海各方行為宣言 全文


東盟各成員國政府和中華人民共和國政府﹐重申各方鞏固和發展各國人們和政府之間業已存在的友誼與合作﹐以促進面向21世紀睦鄰互信夥伴關係﹔認識到為增進本地區的和平﹑穩定﹑經濟發展與繁榮﹐東盟與中國有必要促進南中國海地區和平﹑友好與和諧的環境﹔承諾促進......

東盟各成員國政府和中華人民共和國政府﹐重申各方鞏固和發展各國人們和政府之間業已存在的友誼與合作﹐以促進面向21世紀睦鄰互信夥伴關係﹔

認識到為增進本地區的和平﹑穩定﹑經濟發展與繁榮﹐東盟與中國有必要促進南中國海地區和平﹑友好與和諧的環境﹔

承諾促進1997年東盟成員國與中華人民共和國國家元首或政府首腦會晤《聯合聲合聲明》所確立的原則和目標﹔

希望為和平與永久解決有關國家間的分歧和爭議創造有利條件﹔

謹發表如下宣言﹕

一﹑各方重申以《聯合國憲章》宗旨和原則﹑1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》﹑《東南亞友好合作條約》﹑和平共處五項原則以及其他公認的國際法原則作為處理國家間關係的基本原則﹔

二﹑各方承諾根據上述原則﹐在平等和相互尊重的基礎上﹐探討建立信任的途徑﹔

三﹑各方重申尊重並承諾﹐包括1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》在內的公認的國際法原則所規定的在南中國海的航行及飛越自由﹔

四﹑有關各方承諾根據公認的國際法原則﹐包括1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》﹐由直接有關的主權國家通過友好磋商和談判﹐以和平方式解決它們的領土和管轄權爭議﹐而不訴諸武力或以武力相威脅﹔

五﹑各方承諾保持自我克制﹐不採取使爭議複雜化﹑擴大化和影響和平與穩定的行動﹐包括不在現無人居住的島﹑礁﹑灘﹑沙或其它自然構造上採取居住的行動﹐並以建設性的方式處理它們的分歧。

在和平解決它們的領土和管轄權爭議之前﹐有關各方承諾本著合作與諒解的精神﹐努力尋求各種途徑建立相互信任﹐包括﹕

(一) 在各方國防及軍隊官員之間開展適當的對話和交換意見﹔

(二) 保證對處於危險境地的所有公民予以公正和人道的待遇﹔

(三) 在自願基礎上向其它有關各方通報即將舉行的聯合軍事演習﹔

(四) 在自願基礎上相互通報有關情況。


六﹑在全面和永久解決爭議之前﹐有關各方可探討或開展合作。合作活動可包括以下領域﹕

(一) 海洋環保﹔

(二) 海洋科學研究﹔

(三) 海上航行和交通安全﹔

(四) 搜尋與救助﹔

(五) 打擊跨國犯罪﹐包括但不限於打擊毒品走私﹑海盜和海上武裝搶劫以及軍火走私。

在具體實施之前﹐有關各方應就雙邊及多邊合作的模式﹑範圍和地點取得一致意見。

七﹑有關各方願通過各方同意的模式﹐就有關問題繼續進行磋商和對話﹐包括對遵守本宣言問題舉行定期磋商﹐以增進睦鄰友好關係和提高透明度﹐創造和諧﹑相互理解與合作﹐推動以和平方式解決彼此間爭議﹔

八﹑各方承諾尊重本宣言的條款並採取與宣言相一致的行動﹔

九﹑各方鼓勵其他國家尊重本宣言作包含的原則﹔

十﹑有關各方重申﹐制定南中國海行為準則將進一步促進本地區和平與穩定﹐並同意在各方協商一致的基礎上﹐朝最終達成該目標而努力。

本宣言於2002年11月4日在柬埔寨王國金邊簽署。

簽署人﹕

汶萊達魯薩蘭國外交大臣 穆罕默德.博爾基亞 中華人民共和國外交部
柬埔寨王國外交大臣 賀南洪 副外長兼特使 王毅
印度尼西亞共和國外長 維拉尤達
老撾人民民主共和國副總理兼外長 宋沙瓦
馬來西亞外長 賽義德.哈米德
緬甸聯邦外長 吳溫昂
菲律賓共和國外長 布拉斯.奧普萊
新加坡共和國外長 S.賈古瑪
泰王國外長 素拉杰.沙田泰
越南社會主義共和國外長 阮怡年


DECLARATION ON THE CONDUCT OF PARTIES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

The Governments of the Member States of ASEAN and the Government of the People's Republic of China,

REAFFIRMING their determination to consolidate and develop the friendship and cooperation existing between their people and governments with the view to promoting a 21st century-oriented partnership of good neighbourliness and mutual trust;

COGNIZANT of the need to promote a peaceful, friendly and harmonious environment in the South China Sea between ASEAN and China for the enhancement of peace, stability, economic growth and prosperity in the region;

COMMITTED to enhancing the principles and objectives of the 1997 Joint Statement of the Meeting of the Heads of State/Government of the Member States of ASEAN and President of the People's Republic of China;

DESIRING to enhance favourable conditions for a peaceful and durable solution of differences and disputes among countries concerned;

HEREBY DECLARE the following:

1. The Parties reaffirm their commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and other universally recognized principles of international law which shall serve as the basic norms governing state-to-state relations;

2. The Parties are committed to exploring ways for building trust and confidence in accordance with the above-mentioned principles and on the basis of equality and mutual respect;

3. The Parties reaffirm their respect for and commitment to the freedom of navigation in and overflight above the South China Sea as provided for by the universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

4. The Parties concerned undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea;

5. The Parties undertake to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability including, among others, refraining from action of inhabiting on the presently uninhabited islands, reefs, shoals, cays, and other features and to handle their differences in a constructive manner.

Pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, the Parties concerned undertake to intensify efforts to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence between and among them, including:

a. holding dialogues and exchange of views as appropriate between their defense and military officials;

b. ensuring just and humane treatment of all persons who are either in danger or in distress;

c. notifying, on a voluntary basis, other Parties concerned of any impending joint/combined military exercise; and

d. exchanging, on a voluntary basis, relevant information.

6. Pending a comprehensive and durable settlement of the disputes, the Parties concerned may explore or undertake cooperative activities. These may include the following:

a. marine environmental protection;
b. marine scientific research;
c. safety of navigation and communication at sea;
d. search and rescue operation; and
e. combating transnational crime, including but not limited to trafficking in illicit drugs, piracy and armed robbery at sea, and illegal traffic in arms.

The modalities, scope and locations, in respect of bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be agreed upon by the Parties concerned prior to their actual implementation.

7. The Parties concerned stand ready to continue their consultations and dialogues concerning relevant issues, through modalities to be agreed by them, including regular consultations on the observance of this Declaration, for the purpose of promoting good neighbourliness and transparency, establishing harmony, mutual understanding and cooperation, and facilitating peaceful resolution of disputes among them;

8. The Parties undertake to respect the provisions of this Declaration and take actions consistent therewith;

9. The Parties encourage other countries to respect the principles contained in this Declaration;

10. The Parties concerned reaffirm that the adoption of a code of conduct in the South China Sea would further promote peace and stability in the region and agree to work, on the basis of consensus, towards the eventual attainment of this objective.

Done on the Fourth Day of November in the Year Two Thousand and Two in Phnom Penh, the Kingdom of Cambodia.


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